TABLE OF CONTENTS:
RECOMMENDATION - 1 - CONSUME NOURISHING AND VARIED FOOD. EAT REGULARLY AND GLADLY IN A PLEASANT ATMOSPHERE, TAKE THE TIME TO EAT.
RECOMMENDATION - 2 - CONSUME CEREALS AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ENERGY. PREFERABLY CONSUME WHOLE WHEAT BREAD AND OTHER WHOLEGRAIN PRODUCTS.
RECOMMENDATION - 3 - CONSUME OVER 400 G. OF A VARIETY OF VEGETABLES AND FRUIT, EVERY DAY, PREFERABLY RAW.
RECOMMENDATION - 4 - PREFER MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS WITH LOW CONTENT OF FAT AND SALT.
RECOMMENDATION - 5 - CHOOSE LEAN MEAT, FREQUENTLY SUBSTITUTE MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS WITH FISH, POULTRY OR PULSES.
RECOMMENDATION - 6 - LIMIT TOTAL FAT INTAKE, ESPECIALLY ANIMAL FAT. WHEN COOKING REPLACE FAT WITH VEGETABLE OIL.
RECOMMENDATION - 7 - LIMIT SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS INTAKE, AVOID CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES, CONTAINING SUGAR.
RECOMMENDATION - 8 - REDUCE THE USE OF SALT AND CONSUMPTION OF SALTY FOODS.
RECOMMENDATION - 9 - IF CONSUMING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, CONSUME THEM IN MODERATE QUANTITIES.
RECOMMENDATION - 10 - MAINTAIN HEALTHY WEIGHT AND BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE EVERY DAY.
RECOMMENDATION - 11 - DRINK SUFFICIENT QUANTITY OF WATER DAILY.
RECOMMENDATION - 12 - PREPARE AND STORE FOOD IN A WAY ENSURING ITS QUALITY AND SAFETY.
CONSUME NOURISHING AND VARIED FOOD. EAT REGULARLY AND GLADLY IN A PLEASANT ATMOSPHERE, TAKE THE TIME TO EAT.
• The consumption of various types of foods in appropriate quantities provides essential nutrients to the body without excessive intake of energy, fat, salt and sugar.
• Regular eating avoids the intake of large amounts of food at a time and contributes to better digestion.
• Eating in a pleasant atmosphere without rushing helps better perception of taste and aroma of food, as well as absorption of nutrients.
• Include foods of all main food groups in your diet daily:
1. Cereals and potatoes.
2. Vegetables and fruits.
3. Milk and dairy products.
4. Meat, fish, eggs, pulses and nuts.
Added fat and sugar-containing foods and beverages must be limited.
• Eat regularly 3-5 times a day. Dine no later than 2-3 hours before bedtime.
• Breakfast is important and must not be left out.
• Spare enough time for eating in a pleasant atmosphere.
CONSUME CEREALS AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ENERGY. PREFERABLY CONSUME WHOLE WHEAT BREAD AND OTHER WHOLEGRAIN PRODUCTS.
• Bread and the rest of the cereals are rich in starch, which is a recommended source of energy, and contain a significant amount of plant protein. Potatoes are a rich source of starch.
• Whole-grain breads and other wholegrain foods contribute significantly to the intake of vitamins, minerals and plant fiber (cellulose, etc.).
• Wholegrain foods stimulate the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the risk of constipation, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer.
• Include bread, other cereals and/or potatoes in your daily diet - 250-450 g a day (the amount depends on the sex and physical activity).
• Choose whole-grain products - bread, pastas, brown rice, corn, oats, etc.
• Eat boiled or baked potatoes, avoid French fries and chips.
• Limit consumption of bakeries with high content of fat (banitza, tutmanik, milinki, mekitzi).
CONSUME OVER 400 G. OF A VARIETY OF VEGETABLES AND FRUIT, EVERY DAY, PREFERABLY RAW.
• Vegetables and fruit are rich in vitamins and minerals, bioactive substances and dietary fiber.
• The daily intake of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, overweight and obesity, diabetes type 2.
• Raw vegetables and fruit are recommended because when cooked many of the vitamins contained in them are destroyed.
• Eat a variety of fruit and vegetables with every meal.
• Eat vegetables both raw and in meals, sandwiches, as vegetable fillings in bakeries, etc.
• Replace pickles with raw, frozen vegetables or unsalted canned vegetables.
• Choose fresh fruit for dessert and supplementary breakfast, limit consumption of canned fruit with sugar.
• Choose fresh seasonal vegetables and fruit.
PREFER MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS WITH LOW CONTENT OF FAT AND SALT.
• Milk and dairy products are an important source of whole protein, vitamins and easily absorbed calcium, which reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
• One of the traditional Bulgarian foods, yoghurt, is especially a good choice because it has a special beneficial effect on health.
• The high content of fat in milk and dairy products increases the risk of high cholesterol in blood and the cardiovascular system.
• Consume a cup of yoghurt or milk, 200 ml, and 50 g of cheese daily. They can be replaced with 2 cups of milk or about 100 g of cheese.
• Choose low-fat (1.5%) or non-fat (0.1 - 0.5%) milk and yoghurt.
• Prefer cheese and cottage cheese, low in fat and salt.
• Desalinate salty brined cheese by allowing it to stay in water for some time.
CHOOSE LEAN MEAT, FREQUENTLY SUBSTITUTE MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS WITH FISH, POULTRY OR PULSES
• Meat, fish, eggs, pulses are rich sources of protein and iron.
• Lean meats are recommended because animal fats in fatty meats and sausages increase the level of blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
• Fish contain essential fats, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
• Nuts are rich in valuable vegetable fats but because of the high calorific value they are recommended in moderate quantities.
• Eggs are a source of whole protein, but yolk has high cholesterol content.
• Consume skinless poultry (chicken, turkey, etc.) and lean red meat (veal, beef, pork, lamb) 3 times a week (100 g a serving).
• Remove visible fat from meat before cooking.
• Eat fish at least one or twice a week (150-200 g a serving)
• Eat beans, lentils or soya at least twice a week (200-300 g a serving). Take 30-50 g of nuts a day.
• People without high level of blood cholesterol may consume one egg a day, whereas those with high cholesterol should limit the intake to half a yolk a day.
LIMIT TOTAL FAT INTAKE, ESPECIALLY ANIMAL FAT. WHEN COOKING REPLACE FAT WITH VEGETABLE OIL.
• Eating a lot of fat increases the risk of obesity and diabetes type 2.
• High intake of animal fat increases blood cholesterol, as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer.
• High consumption of solid margarine increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
• Vegetable oils reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
• Choose low-fat milk and dairy products.
• Eat lean meats, limit consumption of sausages.
• Avoid pastry and bakeries, rich in fat.
• Limit consumption of products, containing solid margarine - biscuits, wafers, cakes, etc. Choose low-fat (40-25%) soft margarines.
• Add the least amount of fat in the preparation of dishes and culinary products. Avoid frying, use a non-sticky frying pan, in which you can not use oil.
• Prefer vegetable oils (sunflower and corn oil, olive oil, etc.) to animal fats (lard, butter).
LIMIT SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS INTAKE, AVOID CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES, CONTAINING SUGAR
• Refined sugar and its substitutes fructose, glucose, etc. are a source of "empty calories", they only import energy without other nutrients.
• Honey contains bioactive substances and is preferable before sugar for sweetening.
• High and frequent consumption of sugar and sugar-containing products and beverages contributes to obesity, diabetes type 2, cardiovascular diseases and dental caries.
• Limit sweetening of coffee, tea, milk, etc. If you sweeten, choose honey.
• Avoid the use of non-alcoholic beverages containing sugar, prefer tap and mineral water.
• Reduce consumption of sugar-containing products (confectionery, pastry, bakery).
• Avoid frequent intake of sugar-containing foods and beverages between meals.
REDUCE THE USE OF SALT AND CONSUMPTION OF SALTY FOODS
• High consumption of salt increases the risk of:
- High blood pressure - a major risk factor for brain stroke and ischemic heart disease.
- Stomach cancer.
- Damage of renal functions.
- Increased loss of calcium and osteoporosis.
• Choose foods low in salt.
• Limit consumption of canned foods, sausages, salted fish, pickles, etc.
• Prepare the food with a small quantity of salt.
• Avoid adding salt to food on the table.
• Instead of salt, use vegetable seasoning - savory, mint, parsley, dill, basil, etc.
IF CONSUMING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, CONSUME THEM IN MODERATE QUANTITIES.
• The high consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of high blood pressure and brain stroke, liver damage, certain types of cancer.
• Alcohol is a source of a considerable amount of "empty calories."
• Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, especially red wine, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
• It is advisable not to consume alcoholic beverages, nevertheless, if you drink alcohol, your daily intake should not exceed a moderate amount - 1 beer or 1 glass of wine, or 50 ml of spirits.
• Consume alcoholic beverages slowly, with food.
• Low-alcoholic drinks are preferable.
MAINTAIN HEALTHY WEIGHT AND BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE EVERY DAY
• Under-weight increases the risk of immunity weakening and related diseases
• Overweight and obesity increase the risk of diabetes type 2, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, arthritis.
• Regular physical activity improves self-confidence, working ability and sleep, reduces stress and the risk of obesity and osteoporosis.
• Control your body weight regularly, use the enclosed nomogram to assess your weight.
• If you increase your weight, reduce the quantity per serving of food you normally consume.
• Reduce your intake of foods with high calorific value, especially those high in fat, sugar and confectionery, soft drinks, containing sugar.
• Substitute foods with high-calorific value with wholegrain products, fruit and vegetables.
• Be physically active at least 60 minutes a day (e.g. quick walking).
DRINK SUFFICIENT QUANTITY OF WATER DAILY.
• Water is vital for all body functions.
• Dehydration affects the mental and physical ability to work.
• Good humidification of the body reduces the risk of kidney stones, constipation, etc.
• Drink at least 6-8 glasses of water (1.5 - 2 litres) every day - this quantity includes liquids such as tea, etc.
• Drink water regularly throughout the day.
• Drink more water at high environmental temperature during and after strenuous physical activity.
• Prefer tap and mineral water instead of soft drinks and fruit juices, containing sugar and other sweeteners.
PREPARE AND STORE FOOD IN A WAY ENSURING ITS QUALITY AND SAFETY
• Proper preparation and storage of food ensures minimum loss of nutrients, preservation of biological value, high quality and food safety.
• Avoid contact between raw and ready-to-eat foods during processing and storage.
• Do not defrost meat and fish at room temperature, in the refrigerator, in cold water or a microwave oven.
• Thermal treatment of animal products (meat, poultry, fish, eggs) must be of sufficient duration.
• Follow the directions for storage of food, shown on the label.